This law follows the right to life and liberty from government oppression, principles of the Declaration of Independence.

Protection of the citizens from authoritarian judges depends upon preserving the intent of the law in the matter of unalienable citizen rights. This depends upon discontinuation of fascistic tenure guarantees that empower leftist law professors to prevent the school administrators from controlling what is taught to those who may later become judges.

Twice tried—bail. SECTION 12. No person shall after acquittal, be tried for the same offense. All persons shall, before conviction, be bailable, by sufficient sureties, except for capital offenses where the proof is evident, or the presumption great.

Habeas corpus. SECTION 13. The writ of habeas corpus shall not be suspended, or refused when application is made as required by law, unless in case of rebellion, or invasion the public safety may require it.

Military. SECTION 14. The military shall be subordinate to the civil power. No standing army shall be kept up by the state in time of peace; and in time of war, no appropriation for a standing army shall be for a longer time than two years.

Quartering soldiers. SECTION 15. No soldier shall, in time of peace, be quartered in any house without the consent of the owner, nor in time of war except in the manner prescribed by law.

Treason. SECTION 16. Treason against the state shall consist only in levying war against it, adhering to its enemies, or giving them aid and comfort. No person shall be convicted of treason, unless on the evidence of two witnesses to the same overt act, or confession in an open court.

Bail—punishments. SECTION 17. Excessive bail shall not be required; excessive fines shall not be imposed, and cruel and unusual punishment shall not be inflicted.

Eminent domain—drainage ditches and levees. SECTION 18. Private property shall not be taken for public use without just compensation first being made, or secured to be made to the owner thereof, as soon as the damages shall be assessed by a jury, who shall not take into consideration any advantages that may result to said owner on account of the improvement for which it is taken.

The general assembly, however, may pass laws permitting the owners of lands to construct drains, ditches, and levees for agricultural, sanitary or mining purposes across the lands of others, and provide for the organization of drainage districts, vest the proper authorities with power to construct and maintain levees, drains and ditches and to keep in repair all drains, ditches, and levees heretofore constructed under the laws of the state, by special assessments upon the property benefited thereby. The general assembly may provide by law for the condemnation of such real estate as shall be necessary for the construction and maintenance of such drains, ditches and levees, and prescribe the method of making such condemnation. Paragraph 2 added 1908, Amendment [13].

Imprisonment for debt. SECTION 19. No person shall be imprisoned for debt in any civil action, on mesne or final process, unless in case of fraud; and no person shall be imprisoned for a militia fine in time of peace.

Right of assemblage—petition. SECTION 20. The people have the right freely to assemble together to counsel for the common good; to make known their opinions to their representatives and to petition for a redress of grievances.

Attainder—ex post facto law—obligation of contract. SECTION 21. No bill of attainder, ex post facto law, or law impairing the obligation of contracts, shall ever be passed. Referred to in S12E.11, 16.2 of the Code.

Resident aliens. SECTION 22. Foreigners who are, or may hereafter become residents of this state, shall enjoy the same rights in respect to the possession, enjoyment and descent of property, as native born citizens.

Slavery—penal servitude. SECTION 23. There shall be no slavery in this state; nor shall there be involuntary servitude, unless for the punishment of crime.

Agricultural leases. SECTION 24. No lease or grant of agricultural lands, reserving any rent, or service of any kind, shall be valid for a longer period than twenty years. Referred to in S461A.25 of the Code.

Rights reserved. SECTION 25. This enumeration of rights shall not be construed to impair or deny others, retained by the people.

~ D. Norris

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